Report released about firefighter fatality — trees were broken off during retardant drop

 Draper City, Utah Battalion Chief Matthew Burchett was killed when a low drop uprooted an 87-foot tall tree that fell on him

Diagram fatality air tanker drop Green Sheet
Diagram from the Green Sheet.

(Originally published on FireAviation, September 14, 2018. Updated at 7:43 MDT September 14, 2018)

The California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CAL FIRE) has released what they call a “Green Sheet” report about the fatality and injuries that were caused by falling tree debris resulting from an air tanker’s retardant drop. The accident occurred on the Ranch Fire which was part of the Mendocino Complex of Fires east of Ukiah, California. The report was uploaded to the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center on September 13, 2018 exactly one month after the August 13 accident.

A firefighter from Utah, Draper City Battalion Chief Matthew Burchett, was killed when a low drop uprooted an 87-foot tall tree that fell on him. Three other firefighters had different assortments of injuries from sheered-off trees and limbs, including broken ribs, deep muscle contusions, ligament damage to extremities, scratches, and abrasions.

747 supertanker palmer fire
File photo: The 747 SuperTanker drops on the Palmer Fire south of Calimesa and Yucaipa in southern California, September 2, 2017. Photo by Cy Phenice, used with permission.

Standard procedure is for firefighters to leave an area before an air tanker drops. The report said the personnel on that Division were told twice that day to not be under drops — once in a morning Division break-out briefing, and again on the radio before the fatal drop and three others from large air tankers were made in the area. It was not confirmed that all supervisors heard the order on the radio to evacuate the drop area.

One of the “Incidental Issues / Lessons Learned” in the report mentioned that some firefighters like to record video of air tanker drops:

Fireline personnel have used their cell phones to video the aerial retardant drops. The focus on recording the retardant drops on video may distract firefighters. This activity may impair their ability to recognize the hazards and take appropriate evasive action possibly reducing or eliminating injuries.

The air tanker that made the drop was T-944, a 747-400 that can carry up to 19,200 gallons. Instead of a more conventional gravity-powered retardant delivery system, the aircraft has pressurized equipment that forces the retardant out of the tanks using compressed air. This is similar to the MAFFS air tankers. When a drop is made from the recommended height the retardant hits the ground as a mist, falling vertically, rather than the larger droplets you see with a gravity tank.

In this case, according to the report, the drop was made from approximately 100 feet above the tree tops. The report stated:

The Aerial Supervision Module (ASM) identified the drop path to the VLAT by use of a smoke trail. The VLAT initiated the retardant drop as identified by the smoke trail. Obscured by heavy vegetation and unknown to the VLAT pilot, a rise in elevation occurred along the flight path. This rise in elevation resulted in the retardant drop only being approximately 100 feet above the treetops at the accident site.

When a drop is made from a very low altitude with any air tanker, the retardant is still moving forward almost as fast as the aircraft, as seen in this drop. If it is still moving forward there will be “shadows” that are free of retardant on the back side of vegetation, reducing the effectiveness of the drop. From a proper height retardant will gradually slow from air resistance, move in an arc and ideally will be falling gently straight down before it hits the ground. Another example of a low drop was on the Liberty Fire in Southern California in 2017 that dislodged dozens of ceramic roofing tiles on a residence and blew out several windows allowing a great deal of retardant to enter the home.

We reached out with some questions to Global Supertanker, the company that operates the 747 Supertanker, and they gave us this statement:

We’re heartbroken for the families, friends and colleagues of Chief Burchett and the other brave firefighters who were injured during their recent work on the Mendocino Complex Fire. As proud members of the wildland firefighting community, we, too, have lost a brother.

On August 13, 2018, Global SuperTanker Services, LLC acted within procedural and operational parameters. The subject drop was initiated at the location requested by the Aerial Supervision Module (ASM) after Global SuperTanker Services, LLC was advised that the line was clear.

The former President and CEO of the company, Jim Wheeler, no longer works there as of September 1, 2018. The company is owned by Alterna Capital Partners LLC, of Wilton, Conn.

(Updated at 7:43 MDT September 14, 2018 to include the statement from Global Supertanker that we received at 7:35 p.m. MDT September 14, 2018)

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Author: Bill Gabbert

After working full time in wildland fire for 33 years, he continues to learn, and strives to be a Student of Fire.

4 thoughts on “Report released about firefighter fatality — trees were broken off during retardant drop”

  1. May angels tenderly cradle this dear Fire Battalion Chief in heaven and his bereft loved ones. May angels protect all Firemen, First Responders, Pilots, Dozers and all beings. God bless all of you ???

  2. Subtle changes in terrain aren’t that easy to pick out from above, 100 feet isn’t much, but then when put in the context of standard drop on a VLAT being more like 200-250 feet AGL, it’s a significant difference. (SEATs generally drop 60-100 feet, LAT’s 150-200). Lead Planes are required for VLATs, hopefully those terrain nuances are something they can pick out prior to the final run, for whatever reason that may not have happened here (and there could be a number of factors of course) but they seem to be stressing (and least in the “official” report) that the 100 foot change is somehow a big factor. I can’t help but wonder if a wake turbulence issue was more of the real story, and with all the politics surrounding the 747 thus far, are we getting the truth? A tree that size snapping up high from CL 6??? Or even the other one, that size, getting blown over by CL 6? Not out of the realm of possibility, I’ve seen some amazing carnage from P2V drops at CL 6, but I can’t get past the wake turbulence possibility. I agree with other comment… they say the line is clear, when it really isn’t, or whoever makes the claim doesn’t really know for sure. I don’t agree the aircraft has an agility problem, it’s done some pretty impressive things. It does make wind though…I have a feeling we’ll be talking about this one a lot this winter, and the fate of the 747 is “up in the air” a little more so now, no twisted puns intended.

  3. People still need to get away from the drop. I see this often, ecspecially in CA. How many videos do we see of BC and coand rigs getting hammered with retardant? It is unacceptable.

    Drift from a SEAT is one thing, full coverage on a person from a LAT ot VLAT is different. I was DIVS on a fire in AZ when I heard a TFLD say line is clear. I saw him hiding until the last second as he rose out to video a ln RF come in on final. He was sent home the next day. His frownds on the team were upset at me. It is a cultural thing we need to address.

  4. Less than agile aircraft unable to make adjustments for ground elevation change could be the title of the report. One can argue the 747 has a place in fight fire. The complex terrain of steep California hills might not be the place.


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