Federal Pandemic Response Plan for wildland fire

On April 25 we wrote an article about Swine flu and wildfire, and how a possible pandemic would affect firefighters and their response to large incidents.  Since then we have discovered a plan for such an event on the Wildfire Lessons Learned Center web site. It is titled Avian Flu Pandemic Response and Preparedness Plan For the Federal Wildland Fire Agencies.

Here is a list of some of the information included in the plan.  Some of the data is in appendices that are listed but are not part of the plan on the web site.

  • Information on the types of incidents wildland firefighting personnel could expect to encounter during with avian influenza or pandemic influenza
  • Medical requirements and procedures for emergency responders including required vaccinations and medical screening
  • Lists of medical supplies, unique to influenza response, needed to be stocked in local and national fire caches including “Push-Packs” that can be quickly deployed
  • Required PPE
  • Situational awareness and PPE training for responders
  • Incident Base Hygiene Plan including decontamination procedures
  • Information on how employees can refuse an assignment

I have inserted here a few interesting bits of the plan.

These—and Similar Assignments—Should NOT Be Accepted By Wildland Firefighters

  • Provide direct patient care and movement.
  • Handle or clean-up human waste.
  • Move or handle deceased humans.
  • Handle, bag, or dispose of biohazard-medical waste.
  • Provide decontamination outside of routine base camp related functions.
  • Provide hazardous material services outside of agency policy.

Risk Management

Employees have the right to a safe workplace—as defined in Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations (contained in 29CFR1960.46).

Every effort will be made throughout the life cycle of an incident to ensure the safety of those who assist with an avian influenza or a pandemic incident.

Employees may disobey orders only if the imposed danger meets all of these three criteria:

  1. The threat is imminent,
  2. The threat poses a risk of death or serious bodily injury,
  3. The threat cannot be abated through normal procedures.

If an employee believes an assignment meets all three of these criteria (above) for refusal, he or she should follow the guidelines established within this plan, or in the Incident Response Pocket Guide.

There are several scenarios in which the above guidelines could come into play, including refusing to travel or accept an assignment to a large incident during a pandemic.


All response personnel should receive a seasonal influenza vaccination as well as a tetanus vaccination.

Antiviral medications–The decision regarding the necessity for antiviral inoculation during National Response Plan assignments or tasking would be deferred to the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). In general, the CDC states that “direct contact” with infected poultry or pandemic flu patients could necessitate the use of antivirals as a preventative measure.

National Multi-Agency Coordinating Group (NMAC)

If national resource shortages occur, NMAC will coordinate with GACC to establish and manage resource requests and create alternative strategies for responding to emergencies. To maximize use of all available resources, States and local governments will be represented in national planning efforts. Wildland fire assignments occurring during a threatened or ongoing pandemic will not be viewed as routine. They will be viewed as atypical—with deliberate considerations and evaluations of risk, response, and contingency.

The plan does not address any difficulties in mobilizing for fires or in finding enough firefighters that are willing and/or able to respond to a wildfire during a pandemic or to a pandemic-related all-hazard incident, except for stating that NMAC will “create alternative strategies”.

Wildfire Today has learned, however, that there has been talk about “sequestering” incident management teams if we get into a serious pandemic situation.  This would have the benefit of isolating the team members from exposure to a virus, while keeping them healthy and able to respond to an incident.

Today the Department of Interior sent a memorandum to their Bureau and Office Heads about ongoing H1N1 related activities. Some excerpts:

  • Bureaus and offices should now be initiating a heightened level of employee awareness and prevention programs, in accordance with Appendix F of the DOI Pandemic Influenza Plan. The Office of Occupational Health and Safety will provide technical expertise and additional guidance as may become available from the Centers for Disease Control.
  • Acquisition should be underway to ensure that supplies are available to promote hand hygiene and infection control in the workplace, including disinfectant soap and/or hand sanitizers and supplies to disinfect frequently touched surfaces.
  • Using the “Worksheet for Calculating Stockpiling Needs for Pandemic Influenza,” which is attached, Bureau and Office Emergency Coordinators have quantified requirements for supplies required to implement mitigation strategies, including personal protective equipment and antiviral medication to protect employees in high risk occupational settings and selected medium risk settings. Action should be initiated to ensure there are adequate resources and stockpiles of materials to protect employees during initial response activities.
  • Bureaus and offices should promote action to implement telework agreements and to ensure readiness of systems for increased telework activity. Further guidance from the Office of Personnel Management is expected shortly on this and other Federal employee issues.

Swine flu: first responder precautions

The U. S. Fire Administration has issued “Infogram 17-09” that lists some precautions for first responders who may come into contact with victims of swine flu (H1N1):

  • Review state and local pandemic plans and apply applicable provisions.
  • Implement acute febrile respiratory infection screening for all callers or patients with nasal congestion, cough, fever, or other flu-like symptoms.
  • Request additional information from the dispatcher when sent to respiratory, sick person, and fever-related calls, but given only limited initial information.
  • Perform initial interview of all patients from more than 6 feet away to determine if personal protective equipment precautions are necessary.
  • Place a standard surgical mask on all patients with suspected influenza symptoms before approach.
  • Maintain strict adherence to hand hygiene by washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand disinfectant immediately after removing gloves following any contact with patients.
  • See more detailed recommendations at the Interim Guidance for Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems and 9-1-1 Public Safety Answering Points (PSAPs) for Management of Patients with Confirmed or Suspected Swine-Origin Influenza (H1N1) Infection.

Swine flu and wildfire

How will a possible swine flu H1N1 pandemic affect the way we suppress large fires?

On Wednesday the World Health Organization raised its pandemic alert to the second highest level, a phase 5 alert, meaning it believes a pandemic or global outbreak of the disease is imminent. But we don’t want to over react. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimate that 36,000 people die each year from the flu.  As this is written there has been only one death in the United States from the Swine flu.  This is a new virus and the CDC says they don’t know how it will behave yet.  It may turn out to be no big deal, but until we know for sure, we need to be prepared for the worst, while hoping for the best.

If there is a widespread outbreak or pandemic in the United States, it is likely that travel and congregating in large groups will be discouraged. Some firefighters and others qualified to serve in incident management organizations will make the personal decision that under those conditions they will choose to minimize their risk to themselves and their families by not accepting assignments to large fires.

If a pandemic occurs, we can also assume that Incident Management Teams will be activated to deal with the direct or indirect impacts of the disease, perhaps managing receiving and distribution centers as they frequently do following hurricanes or other disasters.

And if large wildfires occur, firefighters will, as usual, be dispatched across the country to suppress them, which of course will involve long distance travel and congregating in large groups. At most fires, sanitary and shower facilities are limited, at best. Washing clothes is sometimes possible, but not always. Firefighters will be working long hours and getting inadequate sleep. Is this a recipe for the accelerated spread of the disease and putting our firefighters at risk?

The Command and General Staff of California Type 1 Incident Management Team #3 was activated on April 27 to plan for the eventuality of a major swine flu outbreak. One of the members of a NIMO team told me on Wednesday that two Type 2 IMTeams have been activated to assist in distributing supplies. The city of Phoenix has activated their all hazards incident management team. Other teams as far ranging as Aspen, Colorado and New Zealand have teams that are already involved in planning for a possible outbreak.

Planning for fire suppression during a pandemic

I talked with several high-ranking people in the land management agencies and some that are assigned to the Command and General Staff on Type 1 incident management teams, and none of them were aware of any planning that may be in place for how their teams would be affected if asked to respond to a pandemic-related incident or a wildfire during a pandemic.

The U.S. Forest Service’s California Region prepared a “Pandemic Response Plan” in April, 2006. Motivated by the emerging avian flu, it was written by three safety officers and Mellie Coriell, PhD. As far as I know it has not been updated since 2006.

The 55-page plan contains a great deal of information about how to monitor employees for the disease and how to reduce the chances of spreading it within the workplace.  Beginning on page 48 is Appendix 11 which provides guidance on the management of an incident within the environment of a pandemic. Prepared by the medical unit leader of California Type 1 Incident Management Team #3, it assumes a team has been requested to assist with quarantine or isolation.

The appendix includes information about:

  • personal protective equipment
  • pre-screening medical exams
  • specialized inbriefings
  • 14 days of quarantine post deployment
  • various camps for different types of exposure to the virus
  • documentation procedures for exposure to the virus
  • specialized positions and unit leaders that would need to be filled

Where do we stand?

Several U.S. Forest Service employees in the national offices did not return phone calls after we left messages asking for more information about this issue.  And the ones we did talk to have no knowledge of any preparations or plans that may be in place or ongoing, in spite of the one plan that exists in California.  But it is encouraging to know that a few members of California Team #3 have assembled to put together some plans.

As we said earlier, the swine flu may not amount to much, or, it could drastically hamper our ability to find firefighters who are willing to fight fire during a pandemic and to travel to a large fire.  It could also make it difficult to assemble hundreds or thousands of firefighters in one place without putting our people at risk.

Fighting fire or managing a large all-hazard incident during a pandemic will require a great deal of personal protective equipment and other supplies that we don’t normally use on fires, such as:

  • N-95 masks and respirators
  • Latex or Nitrile gloves
  • Tyvek surgical gowns or coveralls
  • Foot coverings
  • Head coverings
  • Eye protection (splash protection)

Maybe the fire warehouses have some of these items now, but if we wait until we absolutely need them, we will be competing with millions of other people trying to obtain the same items.  It may be too late already.

Plan for the worst, and hope for the best.